Attacking the patterns of contemporary consumer culture, Critical Design came to default notion of design as an affirmative, commercially-oriented practice. In the late 60s, Ettore Sottsass declared that design: "is a way of discussing society, politics, eroticism, food and even design," and paved the way to Critical Design that came to define the Italian
movement of the 60s and 70s. Critical Design was formalized as a field of practice in the 21st century by Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby at the Royal College of Art. They sought to move "beyond designing for the way things are now and begin to design for how things could be, imagining alternative possibilities and different ways of being." Their publication Design Noire: The Secret Life of Electronic Objects has become the bible of Critical Design.