"The traditional chair sold in fabubourg Saint-Antoine by tradesmen was made of a wooden frame stuffed with padding and studded with nails. Le Corbusier denounced it as a relic of the past, unsuited to the modern day and to developing technology. The tubular steel frame had made its debut in France, tested our as early as 1926 by Rene Herbst. Instead of stretched cloth, Herbst opted for Sandow-type tensioners primarily used for gymnastic equipment. " Charlotte Perriand on Rene Herbst Sandow Chair and on Tubular steel.